Towards Igbo History: 1st Igbo-Ukwu History Research Lecture Series, 7th April 2021
by Professor Onwuka N. Njoku, fhsn
I am very delighted and humbled at the honor of being invited to reason with this august gathering of a community with a glorious past and unique status among the Igbo. It is my hope that the Igbo-Ukwu History Research Series will yield results of immense historical import; not just for Igbo-Ukwu but also for the Igbo nation and even humanity.
I am to address the topic, “TOWARDS IGBO HISTORY’. By Igbo history, is meant the Igbo past, remote and contemporary, in all its ramifications, including the remembered and recorded experiences the Igbo have garnered since the beginning of their existence on this planet earth. Such records exist in such forms and mediums as human memories, folktales, material artifacts and written documents. The responses of the Igbo to their historical experience are coded in and can be fathomed from their language, skills, culture and perception of the world around them (cosmology). The Igbo are differentiated from other human nationalities, not by their physical attributes but by their cultural baggage and cosmology, which they worked out for themselves over several millennia. Historians have the task of presenting the Igbo past in such a coherent, analytical and chronological way that would bring that past to the consciousness of the Igbo and humanity.
The title of this paper implies that the Igbo have not yet achieved documented history adequately presenting their past and that there is a need to work towards achieving the dream history. My presentation agrees with the above thinking.
Accordingly, I wish to address four related areas of the subject; namely, the contemporary state of Igbo history; interrogation of that current state of Igbo history; an explanation of the current situation and suggestions on the way “towards Igbo History”.
The State of Igbo History: In the 1930s, Anne Leith-Ross made the provocative statement that “Igbo youths are prepared to have no past as long as they can have a future”. Several decades later, that observation still rings true, in some respects. Scholars of Igbo history and historiography recognize that the state of Igbo history and historiography is unsatisfactory. For instance, Adiele Afigbo, an Igbo history guru, now late; lamented the immensity of our ignorance of the Igbo past; and later likened Igbo history study to a bowl of hot soup that one has to lick from the margin. 2 Elizabeth Isichei expressed a similar concern and likened Igbo history study to a sea in which any person can swim as far as their time and resources permit. Today, the state of Igbo history is not as uncharted as it probably was when the above scholars made their observations. For sure, much has been written and much more is being written on Igbo history and historiography. For instance, the year 1970 raised the prospects of Igbo history studies. First, the publication of Thurstan Shaw’s Igbo Ukwu: Archaeological Discoveries in Eastern Nigeria in that year raised interest in the study of the Igbo past.
Second, that same year put a knell on the Republic of Biafra as a physical-geographic and legal entity.
However, the harrowing experiences of the Igbo in the hands of their fellow Nigerians, especially during 1966-1970 and even after, further stimulated interest in the study of Igbo history by Igbo scholars themselves and even by other educated Igbo elite. Many Igbo began to raise questions as to the Igbo place in their country, Nigeria. Older as well as upcoming generations of historians of Igbo have been shedding some light into some murky areas of the Igbo past through research from inside-out perspective.
However, areas of neglect and contestations remain in Igbo history and historiography. Here are a couple of examples that speak volumes on the state of Igbo history. First, Igbo origin, primordial nuclear settlements and dispersal are still contested. The claim of the oriental origin is still strenuously canvassed, though without admissible coherent evidence and theoretical backup. The counter autochthonous claims by some Igbo communities that they were created in their present abode is still strongly canvassed; though the claim does not quite add up, either. At best, it may be that communities, which make the claim, may have occupied where they are for so long; memories of their migration have faded out.
What is certain beyond any atom of doubt is that the Igbo-Ukwu society of the 9th century AD, which Thurstan Shaw’s work exposed, was not an incipient civilization. Rather, its roots appear to go centuries or even millennia back into history, considering the high level of social affluence and cultural sophistication evidenced by the artifacts recovered at the excavated sites. In the light of current archeological and ethnographic evidence, there are grounds for the position that Igbo-Ukwu may well be “the cradle of Igbo civilization”.
Second, current archaeological dating shows that ironworking in the Igbo area goes back over two millennia ago; in other words, the technology is earlier in Igboland than in Taruga (Northern Nigeria) and Anatolia in Turkey (Middle East). Yet, Taruga is still touted in some literature as the locale where ironworking was first practiced in Nigeria; Anatolia is said to be the original center of ironworking in the world. Sadly, the recent fascinating archeological discoveries in Igboland have not been used sufficiently to rubbish the notion that the Igbo are a recent intrusion in their present locale. In fact, the archaeological research interest, which Shaw’s excavations generated, started withering away before attaining its noon. The many millennia of Igbo history before Britain imposed colonial rule in Nigeria still contain too many unknowns to permit a mood of satisfaction on the part of scholars of Igbo history.
Third, Igbo enterprising endeavors have become legendary. This fact notwithstanding, their economic history remains an area of stark neglect. Apart from Topics on Igbo Economic History, no other work of synthesis exists on various areas of Igbo economy over time. The little that is available hovers mostly around trade; with a focus on the Aro trade system in pre-modern times. We know next to nothing about such Igbo traditional artisan pursuits as metalworking and woodcarving, for instance. Yet, these sectors of the traditional Igbo economy, especially ironworking, provided the technological foundation of the Igbo economy and society.
Fourth, in contemporary times, the Igbo have fanned out from their traditional homeland to virtually every town of some size in Nigeria, as well as other parts of Africa such as Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and South Africa, as merchants and artisans.
Often from very challenging beginnings, many of the Igbo adventurers have become conspicuously successful in their businesses. Sadly, in Nigeria, such successes have usually stimulated envy rather than admiration and emulation by their fellow Nigerians. As a result, they and their property have been the targets of cycles of unprovoked vandalism. Even Igbo diaspora or migration history in parts of Nigeria before and since the modern era has not attracted its deserving historical attention. This is notwithstanding the undisputed fact that the Igbo are, by far, the most traveled of all Nigerian nationalities.
The same deficit is evident in respect of the urban history of the Igbo, a virgin terrain of historical research. This neglect, too, is embarrassing given the rate of urbanization in contemporary Igboland, which before colonial times lacked substantial urban towns; perhaps, beside Arochukwu and Awka, at the close of the 19th century. In modern times, many proximate villages and village groups in Igboland have grown into one another, thereby blurring age-old boundaries and initiating the rise of major conurbations.
As is always the case, where firm knowledge is lacking, speculations tend to flourish. If such speculations are repeated over time without sustained challenge, they assume the cloak of established facts. The unwary reader swallows them a line, hook and sinker. This explains the continuing recycling of myth-like fables, which tend to make some aspects of Igbo history seem a circuitous gyration.
The foregoing observations are not intended to diminish the commendable research endeavors of many scholars of Igbo, at home and in diasporas, in recent times. For sure, historians of Igbo are researching various aspects of the people’s history and producing some works of commendable quality. It is neither possible nor helpful to catalog all of such works here. A few examples should suffice. On Igbo women, we may mention the works of Gloria Chuku and Egodi Uchendu; Igbo intellectual history edited by Gloria Chuku, the Atlanticization of Igbo history and historiography written by Leonard Mba and “ Forgotten Technology of Igbo Forebears: History, Resilience and Relevance in Contemporary Nigeria” authored by my humble self, make freshening reading.10 However, poor networking among Igbo history researchers and isolationist tendencies of some researchers tend to limit the accessibility of the public to such works.
The Igbo in Historical Epochs:
Actually, the Igbo have a very proud and exciting past; but this proud past remains little recognized and very much unsung. In all the major epochs of human history, long gone and contemporary, remembered and documented, the Igbo have left some important imprints and milestones. Thus, between what books say about the Igbo and what Ndiigbo actually are historically, there is a wide gulf. A few examples should suffice.
First, since remote times, Igboland has boasted the densest rural population in Africa comparable only to that of the fertile lower Nile Valley; even though Igboland is far less fertile than the Nile valley is. In spite of the huge number of young men and women, the Igbo lost to the Atlantic slave trade, the population of Igboland remained surprisingly dense and vibrant at the end of that inglorious era. Igboland population has remained dense to date. The historical explanation for this perplexity remains a subject deserving scholarly historical research.
Second, in Igbo-Ukwu, we have archeological artifacts of exquisite craftsmanship comparable in Africa only to that of the ancient Romans in Mediterranean North Africa. The tradition of Igbo metal artistry continued throughout the pre-colonial era to modern times. During the pre-colonial times and after, Abiriba, Agulu Umana, Awka and Nkwere metal artisans regularly engaged in professional itineration to various parts of Eastern Nigeria and far beyond. Their itineration covered Igala and Igbira country to the north; Benin kingdom and Ondo district of Yoruba land in the west and the Cross-River territory even into modern Cameroon in the east.
Itinerant Igbo smiths wielded considerable political influence in the courts of some Igala Attah, such as Attah Obaje. In the same way, Agulu Umana smiths were influential in the Bamenda kingdom in Cameroon. In the colonial times, the ubiquity of Igbo artisans attracted the admiration of Governor Bourdillon, who observed as follows:
“… The Ibo (Igbo) seem to have a special aptitude for handicrafts. Wherever I go, whether next-door into the Ibibio country or west to Ondo or north in the tin mines, I find the Ibo artisans holding the majority of the skilled artisan jobs.”
Third, while supposedly advanced centralized polities in Europe, Asia and parts of Africa were entangled in the inequity of feudalism and absolute monarchies, the Igbo had long worked out a thoroughgoing participatory democratic governance system, which blended the wisdom and retrospection of age with the radicalism and innovativeness of youth. Igbo leaning towards small scale governance, raises instructive homilies for today’s world, witnessing the collapse of political hegemonies such as the British Empire, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the political separation of India and Pakistan, the emergence of southern and northern Sudan and Ethiopia and Eritrea, among many others. In today’s Nigeria, popular agitations against political over-centralization fill the air.
Fourth, liberated enslaved Igbo championed the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and resistance against the bogey of imperialism in Africa. They included Olaudah Equiano in Great Britain, Africanus Horton in Sierra Leone, and Jaja of Nkwere/Opobo in Nigeria. Enslaved Igbo in the New World were known both for their hard work and for unyielding resistance against servitude. Some of them gained “notoriety” for committing suicide rather live under the crushing indignity of servitude. Enslaved and freed Africans, many of them certainly Igbo, played critical roles in the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804, which toppled French colonialism following more than a decade of violence and political upheaval in that island. This is perhaps the most successful slave revolution in world history.
Fifth, from colonial times until date, the Igbo have continued to leave their footprints in various areas of human endeavor in Nigeria and in diasporas. In their demonstrations of 1929/30, Igbo women violently vented their displeasure against British colonial misrule, perhaps the first of its kind in British imperial history. Their daring caused imperious Britain to a serious rethink their avowed Lugardian system of Indirect Rule. Nnamdi Azikiwe ‘remains’ perhaps the most charismatic politician Nigeria has produced. He, along with other Igbo nationalists, played a central role in championing Nigeria’s successful struggle for independence and spared no effort in working for a united Nigeria. In Sir Louis Odumegwu Ojukwu, Nigeria had her first billionaire business mogul.
In academia, the names of Professors Eni Njoku and Kenneth Onwuka Dike toll loud. Dike was the first Vice-Chancellor (VC) of the University of Ibadan and again the first VC, Enugu State University of Technology. Eni Njoku was the first VC of the University of Lagos and later the first Nigerian VC of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Dike is also remembered as the father of modern African historiography, which emphasizes researching and writing African history from the African perspective as against the Euro-centric. Many Igbo scientists and mathematicians of global eminence include James Ezeilo, Chike Obi, Frank Ndili and Gordian Ezekwe, to name only these few.
The Republic of Biafra, though short-lived, marveled the world with startling military technology inventions during the Nigeria-Biafra war. The inventions included shore batteries, missile launchers and armored vehicle destroyers. The inventions bred fear among many Western powers of the possible rise of an African world technological and military power. For this reason, the world powers colluded to see to the demise of Biafra, as Ezeani Emefiani shows in his book, In Biafra Africa Died. Osita Onuma, a First Class (Hons.) An engineering graduate of UNN scored the best result ever in the long history of Imperial College, London (98.5%). His singular achievement elicited the commendation of the then President of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo. Onuma is now a Google Software Engineer. Machine parts (okpuru Igbo) forged by Igbo artisans have become indispensable in keeping the industrial wheels of Nigeria rolling. At the global management level, Emeka Anyaoku distinguished himself as Secretary-General of the Commonwealth. Okonjo Iweala, former Managing Director of the World Bank, is the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
In the immediate Nigeria-Biafra post-war years, Igboland was a total wreck, occasioned by the atrocities of Nigerian soldiers. Post-war policies of the federal governments, from the 1970s until date, to all intents and purposes, aimed at denying the Igbo nation their identity, self-assertion and political, economic and infrastructural entitlements. However, the manipulations have not been as successful as their designers and executors possibly wish. The reason for this is the indomitable Igbo spirit of enterprise; symbolized in the Ikenga, the Igbo iconography of the right hand. Thus, the Igbo continue to defy the odds piled up against them by Nigerian officialdom. This fact is especially evident in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy, somewhat outside government administrative stranglehold. Igbo presence in major markets in Nigeria such as Aba, Lagos, Onitsha, Nnewi, Kano, Kaduna and Jos, for instance, speaks volumes of the people’s irrepressible entrepreneurial spirit.
The Igbo Enigma:
From the foregoing survey, there can be no doubt that the Igbo have made important contributions to the history of Nigeria, particularly and humanity in general. However, in spite of their remarkable achievements in various epochs of history and areas of human endeavors, the Igbo remain an enigma to themselves and to other Nigerians. Among Nigeria’s three major nationalities – Hausa/Fulani, Igbo and Yoruba – the Igbo are the least studied, the least understood, the most misconstrued and the least publicized, except for wrong reasons.
Certain factors explain this enigma. Some of them derive from the Igbo themselves. First, in colonial times, Igbo history was not considered a worthy subject of serious research. Western writers considered non-centralized societies as primitive and rooted at the bottom of the human development ladder. Thus, the very democratic Igbo traditional governance system was caricatured off-handedly as “ordered anarchy”. This notion remains stuck in the mentality of even high-profile education administrators in Nigeria today. For instance, JAMB Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination Syllabus in History, Section B: Nigeria 1800 – 1900, contains six areas of study, namely, The Sokoto Caliphate, Kanem-Bornu; Yoruba land, Benin, European Relations with Nigeria and British Conquest of Nigeria.
Significantly, no reference is made of the Igbo, one of the three largest ethnic nationalities in Nigeria and perhaps the most achieving of Nigeria’s nationalities. In the 1950s – 1960s, the Yoruba Historical Research Scheme was established and was headed by S. O. Biobaku; K. O. Dike was the architect of the Benin Historical Scheme; Northern Nigerian leaders established the Arewa House for the study and documentation of Northern Nigeria history.
From these schemes have emerged major works on the histories and cultures of the peoples in the different areas covered by the schemes. Igboland did not have such a scheme. In fact, Igbo history, as a subject of proper academic inquiry, awaited the birth of UNN. Even then, the subject was initially subsumed under the rubric of a course titled “Peoples of Southeastern Nigeria”.
It is no surprise that pioneer Igbo historians started their researches from the margin of Igboland, as it were. These include, for instance, Dike’s Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta, J. C. Anene’s Southern Nigeria in Transition and Walter Ofonagoro’s, Trade and Imperialism in Southern Nigeria. Adiele Afigbo’s Warrant Chief System in Igboland may well be the first of the early efforts to focus on the Igbo society vis a vis the colonial impositions.
Early Christian missionaries tried to train their Igbo converts to despise their own cultural roots. Colonial education aimed to produce Igbo youth who knew about English history rather than that of their own people and country. In 1915, a wave of Christian religious frenzy, prodded by Garrick Sokari Braide, swept through Igboland, inflicting massive destruction of various exquisite Igbo art and craft works, loaded with history. Assaults of this sort on the culture and historical relics of the Igbo have continued even in the present millennium in the fashion of Restoration Crusades. In one of such bizarre escapades, the United Congress of Mbaise Christians is said to have organized the destruction of no fewer than 100 shrines and vowed to destroy many more, perhaps in the fashion of the Taliban.
Because of such frenzies and pyromaniac outrages, traditional sculptures and works of art, such as mbari, have been lost forever, along with the history embedded in them. Yoruba Ifa divination is still carefully preserved and is recognized as a living human treasure by UNESCO’s Commission on Intangible Cultural Heritage. However, in Igboland, the Ibini Ukpabi in Arochukwu, and Agbala in Awka, with all their significant historical embodiments, have long been rudely laid to ruins by the termites of our past.
The horrendous experiences of the Igbo in Nigeria show that their fellow Nigerians, at best, merely tolerate them. Nevertheless, the Igbo have not done enough to redeem their neighbors’ jaundiced image of them. The voices of discord among Igbo leaders, even over matters of extreme importance to their people, suggest a leadership corps divided against themselves and their own people; and lacking a coherent pan-Igbo national agenda. In some acts of inverted self-attrition, Igbo have sometimes turned openly upon themselves. On the one hand, high profile Igbo leaders and organizations have publicly disowned such movements as MASSOB and IPOB. On the other, Afenifere has hardly raised a voice of disapproval of Oduduwa People’s Congress in spite of the trails of destruction they have sometimes left behind. Similarly, the Northern Elders Forum normally purports to stand aloof while northern youths go on rampage against the Igbo and their property in the North.
The posture of Igbo leadership appears a travesty. One would have thought that given their harrowing collective experience in contemporary Nigeria, the Igbo should be the most closely knitted of all Nigerian peoples as the Israelis are. However, the Igbo position seems to be a strange parody of a people rejected by others, who at the same time reject themselves. Onye ajuru aju onaju onwe ya?
The challenge before the Igbo nation is that of self-rediscovery; that is, re-discovering how we came to be where and who we are. This imperative should not be left to academic historians alone. All Igbo – young and old, in public and private capacities, literate and non-literate – should be involved in the task. Parents must pass on the baggage of Igbo history and culture they inherited from their forebears to the younger generations. Fluency in English but illiteracy in the mother tongue characteristic of some modern Igbo elite is a travesty of damning implications. Scholars of Igbo studies need to network in their research efforts and avoid the tendency towards secretiveness, of one hand hiding what it is doing from the other hand.
Every Igbo community should not only pass on their rich historical tradition to their younger generations orally; they should document it thoroughly and systematically. Such micro-focal histories would serve as building blocks for doing macro – or pan-Igbo history. My guess is that this is the sort of history the Igbo-Ukwu history research series seems set to initiate.
The need to establish Igbo studies and documentation centers can hardly be over-emphasized. Such a center must be able to formulate a well-articulated programmatic scheme aimed at rehabilitating and firming up Igbo history and culture research and documentation. If established, the center could grow into a repository of all works on Igbo done in any part of the world.
To be effective, the center has to be not just well funded; it has to be a truly pan-Igbo outfit, headed by a sound scholar of Igbo history and culture, and staffed with committed and knowledgeable personnel. Governments of Igbo states and philanthropic organizations can fund the center. Arewa House (Kaduna) has been performing this sort of invaluable service for Northern Nigeria history. Igbo in diasporas are in their millions and can be attracted to key into the program.
Reputable publishing houses and journals with a focus on the Igbo world are an utmost necessity. Unlike the Yoruba, for instance, the Igbo lack firmly grounded publishing houses. Groundwork of Igbo History (1992), edited by Adiele Afigbo, is a solid and truly comprehensive work of scholarship. Sadly, the compendium was so horribly rubbished because of incompetent publishing, it could not go into circulation after it had been publicly unveiled.
Not for lack of quality of their works, many researchers in Igbo history and culture face severe difficulties in having their outputs published on their merit. Ethnicity, Nigeria’s Achilles heel, has crept into the publishing industry and even the ivory tower. Currently, there is a fast-developing intellectual outpouring of dissent from young Igbo historians, responding to a publication titled Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. The dissenting agitators argue that the Igbo are made to appear in the compilation as Lilliputians vis-a-vis their Yoruba rivals. This slant in Nigerian historical representations is not actually new, as indicated earlier with especial regard to JAMB Matriculation Board. What seems new is the level of demonstrable dissent by current younger generation Igbo historians against perceived unequal treatment of their own people in Nigeria’s history and historiography.
Given its pristine position in the genesis and evolution of the Igbo nation and civilization, the Igbo-Ukwu community has a leadership role to play in the task of placing Igbo history and culture studies at its deserving position. May this gathering today mark the small beginning of the Igbo endeavor to negotiate the bend towards their dream history.
Once again, I thank immensely, the historical people of Igbo-Ukwu, for giving me this unique opportunity to share thoughts with you.
God bless you all.
Professor Onwuka N. Njoku
- Anne Leith-Ross, African Women: A Study of the Ibo of Nigeria. London: Routledge Kegan and Paul (1939):54
- A. E. Afigbo, Ropes of Sand: Studies in Igbo History and Culture. New York: OUP (1981).
- Elizabeth Isichei, Igbo Worlds: An Anthology of Igbo Histories and Historical Perspectives. London: Macmillan (1977):7
- Thurstan Shaw, Igbo-Ukwu: Archaeological Excavations in Eastern Nigeria. London: Faber and Faber (1970)
- BON Eluwa, Ado-Na-Idu: A History of Igbo Origins. Owerri: De- Debonelsons Global Company Limited (2008)
- Humphrey K. Akaolisa, The Igbo Race: Origin and Controversies. Nigeria: Buckstar Publishers (2003):
- Afigbo, Ikenga: The State of Our Knowledge. Owerri: RADA Publishing Co. (1980). Ropes of sand
- Edwin Okafor and Patricia Phillips, “New 14 Carbon Ages from Nsukka, Nigeria and the Origins of African Metallurgy”. ANTIQUITY, 66, 25(Sep’1997); Pamela Eze-Uzomaka,” Iron Age Archaeology in Lejja, Nigeria”. In Gilbert Pwiti, CahantalRadimilahi and Solange Macano (eds), Studies in the African Past; vol.7, Dar es Salam University Press (2003)
- Nwankwo T. Nwaezeigwe, The Igbo and their Nri Neighbors. Enugu: SNAAP Press Ltd;(2007):4-6
- Onwuka Njoku and Obi Iwuagu(eds.), Topics in Igbo Economic History. Lagos: First Academic Publishers (2098)
- Gloria Chuku, Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria. New York: Routledge, (2005); The Igbo Intellectual Tradition: Creative Conflict in African and African Diasporic Thought; Palgave Macmillan (2013); Egodi Uchendu, Women and Conflict in the Nigerian Civil War. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press.2007; Ndubueze L. Mba; Emergent Masculinities: Gendered Power and Social Change in the Biafran Atlantic Age. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.2019. Onwka N. Njoku, “Technology of Igbo Forebears: History, Resilience and Relevance in Contemporary Nigeria”. (forthcoming)
- Denis Williams, Icon and Image; A Study of Sacred and Secular Forms of African Arts. London197):118
- Nancy C. Neaher, ”Awka Who Travel: Itinerant Metalsmiths of Southeastern Nigeria”, Africa,49. (1979);’ Njoku, “Itinerant Igbo Smiths of Pre-colonial Nigeria; Nsukka Journal of the Humanities, No.7(1994):1-21
- National Archives Enugu; Rivprov 9/1/416; Extract from a minute by HE, Gov Bourdillon; 30 April,1936
- Douglas B. Chambers, Enslaved Igbo and Ibibio in America: Runaway Slaves and Historical Descriptions. Enugu: Jemezie Associates (2013)
- Ezeani Emefiana, In Biafra Africa, Died: The Diplomatic Plot. London: Lumen Veritas Publishers (2013
- ”Obasanjo hails Nigerian genius, Osita Onma”. https://groups,google.com>forum (accessed April 2021)
- Njoku, “Okon Uya @ 70: Matters Arising”. In David Imbua et al.; Okon Uya At 70: Issues in Historiography, Nation Building and the African Diaspora. Makurdi: Aboki Publishers2016):9-11. I was an undergraduate student of History at the time.
- Percy A. Talbot, Tribes of the Niger Delta. London Shelton Press,1932_27-275. See also WIKIPEDIA; m.wikipedia.og (accessed 02 May 2021).
- Wole Soyinka, Forget the Past, Forfeit the Future. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press (2006).
- Njoku, ”The Imperative and Challenge of Igbo History and Culture Studies”. Journal of Igbo Studies; vol.1 (2006):13-18
- Afigbo (ed), Groundwork of Igbo History. Vista Books (1992)
23. Toyin Falola and Ann Genova, Historical Dictionaries of Nigeria. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc (2009).
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